Surface and underground irrigation: types, methods, importance - cement concrete (2023)

Water application methods in irrigation fields.

It can be applied to soil for irrigation using various methods. the choice ofwater application methoddepends on the available water supply, soil type,land topography, the type of crop to be irrigated, etc. the rating is:-

  1. surface irrigation
  2. underground irrigation
  3. sprinkler irrigation

surface irrigation methods

In this method, water is applied to the surface of the boy. There are different types of surface irrigation methods, which are described below.

Surface and underground irrigation: types, methods, importance - cement concrete (1)

Underground Irrigation Methods:-

With this method, water is applied below the surface of the earth. Underground irrigation can be divided into:

Natural underground irrigation: Leachate from water sources such as streams, lakes, ponds, canals, etc. It goes underground and during the passage underground it can irrigate the plants by capillarity.

Artificial underground irrigation:In this process, water is applied underground through a network of pipes, buried, perforated or with open joints. As water flows through these pipes under pressure, it exits through open joints. The depth of the tubes should not be less than 40 cm so that they do not interfere with the cultivation. Evaporation losses are reduced. the method iscarodue to the high cost of piping and installation. The water used must be of good quality to avoid clogging the hole.

Surface and underground irrigation: types, methods, importance - cement concrete (2)

Drip or Drip Irrigation:

Drip or dripping is a special type of underground method that involves the application of waterbelow the surface of the earthnear the roots of the plant in the form of small drops. The components of drip irrigation systems are the control head, piping and emitters. The control head consists of an upper tank, a water gauge, a pressure regulator, a filter and a pumping unit.

The pipe network consists of a main pipe and several branch pipes. one no. of small diameter tubes, called drippers, which remove water from the side tubes and transport it to the roots of the plants.

Radiators must be provided with sufficient distance from each drip line. This method has high application efficiency, less evaporative loss and high piping and installation costs.

sprinkler irrigation:

  • With this method, water is applied to the soil in the form of a spray. It consists of a pumping unit, a piping network and sprinkler systems. The pump takes water from a water source and distributes it to the side pipes through the main pipe and a branch pipe.
  • The water from the side flows through the pylons and sprinkles the ground. Sprinkler can be fixed nozzle, perforated tube and rotary type.
  • This method avoids the need to level uneven terrain, eliminates deep seepage and ensures uniform water distribution. With this method, fertilizers can be applied evenly because they are evenly mixed with the irrigation water.
  • This procedure is advantageously adopted when the countryTopographyis uneven, the slope of the property is steep and the soil of the property is excessively permeable. The process is expensive due to high piping and installation costs. It is better to use good quality water.

Adequacy of sprinkler irrigation.

Sprinkler irrigation, also calledsprinkler irrigation, is the method of watering crops in the field in the form of a jet or jet that breaks down into droplets or droplets created by ejecting pressurized water through a nozzle.sprinkler irrigationstartnatural raincontrolled frequency, duration and intensity.

Allows sporadic use of water through a controlled and more or less uniform application over the entire area of ​​the land. In addition to irrigation, sprinklers can also be an effective way to apply water containing soluble nutrients and pesticides to crops. To prevent slamming and runoff, sprinklers are designed to apply water at a rate that does not exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil.

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Sprinkler irrigation is particularly suitable under the following conditions.

i) Coarse soils with low water holding capacity where it will be difficult to maintain water distribution by the surface irrigation method.

ii) Sloppy or undulating topography where leveling the ground is not practical or economical.

iii) Poor water availability when the amount of water is insufficient to irrigate with the surface method.

iv) Profitability to grow high quality crops: fruits, vegetables, spices, etc.

Surface irrigation techniques and their suitability

The different methods of surface irrigation can be classified as follows:

a) Free Flood:-

Free flooding is letting water into a corner of the field and allowing it to spread across the field. This method can be used when water is plentiful and cheap, and the crop does not suffer from overwatering, e.g. B. Rice.

The corner where the water enters results in overwatering and large seepage losses, while the other end results in submergence. This method requires less labor as there is no soil preparation in the form of embankments, ditches, planing (grading), etc.

b) Edge strips, procedure: –

This method divides the field into strips that are flat but sloped along their length. The width of each strip depends mainly on the size of the stream (the flow to be applied in the strip) and the slope of the land.

The length and slope of the edge will depend on the type of soil, as velocities should not be so low as to cause erosion and should not be so small as to result in a very uneven infiltration depth from top to bottom.

c) Control flooding:-

In this method, the field is divided into several compartments and water is supplied sequentially from the farmer's stream running alongside. Each compartment is essentially planar. This leads to a more even distribution of water and prevents wastage. However, some area is lost. It requires constant support and works during watering.

d) Inundation of the basin: -

This method is a special type of flood control and is used especially for fruit trees. Usually a tree is placed in the basin and the surface is flooded with water from the ditch.

e) Irrigation by Furrows: –

It consists of pouring water into the furrow (a series of long, narrow channels) between the rows of plants to be watered. Through infiltration, the water reaches the roots of the plants. With this method, water is not applied over the entire land surface and therefore evaporation losses are lower. It is an excellent method for row crops such as potatoes, cauliflower, etc.Interesting for you:Irrigation Diversion Works Component Structure and Functions

f) Contour Cultivation:-

In contour agriculture, the land to be irrigated is divided into strips aligned along the contours of the land. These strips are called terraces. A low dyke or dyke is constructed on the outside of each lane, following the boundary configuration along the contour.

5. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods
surface irrigation
1. No control over1. No control over water.
2. The initial cost is less.2. Waste of water.
3. Highly skilled workers are not needed3. Water Log Opportunities.
4. No fancy technology required4. The body can suffer from excess water
5. It's much easier to monitor.5. Flat floor is required.
6. Possibilities of soil erosion.
underground irrigation
1. No water waste1. Acquisition costs are higher.
2. Control over water.2. Highly skilled workers are needed
3. Possibilities of soil erosion.3. Sophisticated technology is required
4. Less chance of destruction.4. It is very difficult to monitor.
sprinkler irrigation
1. Control over water.1. High cost.
2. Water saving.2. Pressure action
3. Labor saving3. Wind effect.
4. Soil and crop protection against extreme weather conditions4. Leaves burnt by salt.
5. Adaptation to edge soils.5. Clogged spout.
6. Efficient land use.6. Required power or pressure
7. Frost and climate control.7. Frequent monitoring is required

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